ADP Biology Definition And Explanations

ADP Biology Definition

Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP), the adenosine 5′-diphosphate, is a ribonucleotide formed of a base purine, the adenine, a pentose, the ribose and two phosphates. The adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is an activator platelet which is released from platelet granules upon formation of a hemostatic plug. It is rapidly phosphorylated in ATP by oxidative phosphorylation, by photophosphorylation or even by phosphorylation at the level of the substrate.

Cycle ATP-ADP 

Cycle ATP-ADP 

After a simple reaction of breaking down ATP ( adenosine triphosphate ) into ADP (adenosine diphosphate), the energy released by breaking a molecular bond is the energy we use to keep us alive.

ADP-ribosylation is a chemical reaction that involves adding one or more ADP-ribose residues to a protein. It is a reversible post-translational modification that plays an important role in many cellular processes. Abnormal ADP-ribosylation is seen in some forms of cancer.

Adenosine diphosphate (a polyphosphate ) binds to glucose to give ADP-glucose, an activated monomer that will attach to the forming starch chain.

ADP-ribosylation is the addition of one or more molecules of ADP ribose to protein. ADP ribose derived from a molecule of NAD+ cut by the release of a molecule of nicotinamide by enzymes eukaryotic from the family of ADP-ribosyl- transferase (ADPRT) being of Poli-ADPRT (such as poly- ADP-ribose polymerase -PARP) which catalyzes the reactions of poly-ADP-ribosylation or by mono-ADPRT which catalyzes a reaction of mono-ADP ribosylation.

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These reactions are reversible, whereas there are various bacterial toxins ( pertussis toxins, cholesterol, botulinum and diphtheria) which are mono-ADPRT but catalyze irreversible reactions. These reactions are involved in cell signaling and the control of cellular processes, including DNA repair and apoptosis.

When the bond between the phosphate is broken, energy is released. While ATP is constantly used by the body in its biological processes, energy supply can be boosted by new sources of glucose made available by eating foods which are then broken down by the digestive system into smaller particles which can be used by the body.

On top of that, ADP is replenished into ATP so that it can be reused in its most energetic state. Although this conversion requires energy, the process produces a net gain in energy, which means that more energy is available by reusing ADP + Pi in ATP.

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