Hyperpyrexia: Definition, Signs, Causes and Treatment


Hyperpyrexia, hyperpyretic or excessive fever is a fever with an extremely high body temperature exceeding 41.0 °C. This high temperature is life-threatening and is considered a medical emergency. Immediate aggressive cooling of the body to temperatures below 38.9 °C improves the chances of survival in hyperpyrexia.

What is hyperpyrexia?

Normal frame temperature is typically 98.6 °F (37 °C). However, small fluctuations can arise all through the day. For instance, frame temperature is lowest with inside the early hours of the morning and maximum on the rest of the day.

You are taken into consideration to have an excessive fever whilst your frame temperature rises numerous tiers above ordinary. This is typically described as 100.4 °F (38 °C) or better.

In a few cases, the frame temperature can upward thrust considerably above ordinary temperature because of matters aside from fever. This is referred to as hyperthermia.

When your frame temperature exceeds 106 °F (41.1 °C) because of fever, you’re taken into consideration to have hyperpyrexia.

When to Seek Emergency Medical Care

Call your medical doctor in case you or your baby has a temperature of 103 tiers or better. You ought to usually are seeking for emergency scientific interest for fever in case you revel in the subsequent signs:

  • Fever of 100.4 ° F (38 ° C) or better in youngsters beneath neath 3 months of age
  • intermittent breathing
  • confusion or drowsiness
  • convulsions or convulsions
  • Strong headache
  • pores and skin rash
  • chronic vomiting
  • intense diarrhea
  • stomach ache
  • torticollis
  • ache whilst urinating

Hyperthermia signs

In addition to a fever of 106 ° F (41.1 ° C) or better, signs of hyperthermia may also consist of:

  • extended or abnormal coronary heart rate
  • muscle spasms
  • fast breathing
  • seizures
  • confusion or intellectual changes
  • lack of consciousness
  • coma

Hyperpyrexia is taken into consideration as a scientific emergency. If left untreated, organ harm and demise can arise. Always seek advice from a medical doctor immediately.

Read also: What is dysmetria? Causes, symptoms, treatments

Causes of hyperpyrexia


Various intense bacterial, viral and parasitic infections can result in hyperthermia.

Infections that could result in hyperthermia consist of, however aren’t restrained to:

Sepsis also can cause hyperpyrexia. Sepsis is a life-threatening trouble of contamination. In sepsis, your frame releases some compounds into your bloodstream to assist combat contamination. This can from time to time produce a violent inflammatory reaction that could result in organ harm and failure.

In order to diagnose an infectious purpose of hyperthermia, your medical doctor will take a pattern to test for microorganisms. Depending on the character of the suspected contamination, this pattern can be a blood pattern, urinalysis, stool take a look at, or sputum pattern. Your medical doctor can perceive the infectious agent through the use of one-of-a-kind cultures or molecular methods.


In uncommon cases, publicity to positive ache medicinal drugs can result in extraordinarily excessive frame temperatures. This is referred to as malignant hyperthermia (from time to time referred to as malignant hyperthermia).

Being at risk of malignant hyperthermia is hereditary, this means that it could be surpassed from determine to baby.

Malignant hyperthermia may be identified with the aid of checking out a pattern of muscle tissue. If you’ve got a relative who has malignant hyperpyrexia, you ought to keep in mind being skilled withinside the circumstance.

Other pills

In addition to anesthetic pills, the usage of positive pharmaceuticals can result in situations wherein hyperthermia is a symptom.

An instance of 1 such circumstance is serotonin syndrome. This doubtlessly life- threatening circumstance may be as a result of serotonergic pills consisting of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).

Another instance is neuroleptic malignant syndrome, which may be as a result of a response to antipsychotic pills.

In addition, positive leisure pills, consisting of MDMA (ecstasy), can result in hyperpyrexia.

The signs of those situations typically expand quickly after publicity to the drug.

Your medical doctor will carry out a bodily examination and evaluate the publicity records of unique pills to diagnose drug-associated hyperpyrexia.


Heatstroke whilst your frame overheats to risky levels. This may be as a result of overexerting yourself in a warm environment. In addition, humans who’ve trouble regulating their frame temperature may also develop heatstroke. This can consist of the elderly, very younger youngsters, or humans with persistent scientific situations.

Your medical doctor will carry out a bodily examination to diagnose heatstroke. Since heatstroke and dehydration can strain the kidneys, they also can take a look at kidney function.

Thyroid hurricane

Thyroid hurricane is an extraordinary circumstance that could arise whilst thyroid hormone is excessive.

Early detection and remedy of thyroid hurricane is essential. Your medical doctor will use your scientific records, signs, and laboratory assessments to affirm a thyroid hurricane.

Read also: What is Thyromegaly? Causes and signs

In newborns

Hyperpyrexia is uncommon in younger youngsters. However, a baby with hyperthermia can be at danger for extreme bacterial contamination.

Several researches have proven an affiliation with fever and the danger of great bacterial contamination in very young youngsters.

If your baby is nearly three months of age and has a fever of 100.4 ° F or better, it’s very essential that they get a hold of well timed scientific interest.

Hyperthermia remedy

Treatment for hyperthermia consists of addressing each boom in frame temperature and the circumstance this is inflicting it.

Rubbing or bathing in bloodless water can assist decrease your frame temperature. Ice packs, blowing bloodless air, or spraying bloodless water also can assist. Also, any stiff or greater garb ought to be removed. When you’ve got a fever, those measures might not be paintings to deliver the temperature lower back to ordinary, or maybe extra than a diploma or two.

You also can provide intravenous (IV) fluids as a preservation remedy and assist with dehydration.

If the hyperthermia is because of contamination, your medical doctor will decide the purpose. They will then administer the right drug remedy to deal with it.

If you’ve got malignant hyperthermia, your medical doctor or anesthesiologist will prevent all ache relievers and provide you with a drug referred to as dantrol. Moving forward, you ought to usually tell your medical doctor or anesthetist of your circumstance.

drug-associated hyperthermia is handled with the aid of discontinuing use of the drug, receiving supportive remedy, and handling signs consisting of coronary heart palpitations and excessive blood pressure.

Conditions consisting of thyroid hurricanes may be handled with antithyroid medicinal drugs.

Prospects for Hyperthermia?

Hyperthermia, or a fever of 106 ° F or better, is a scientific emergency. If the temperature does now no longer drop, it could result in organ harm and demise.

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