Hyperthermia: Causes and symptoms & treatments

Hyperthermia is the accumulation of excess heat in the human body or overheating, which is characterized by an increase in temperature. The main factor provoking this disease is the difficulty in transferring heat to the environment or an increase in heat from the outside.

It is also necessary to distinguish between artificial hyperthermia, which is used to treat neuralgic diseases or chronic ailments, which are characterized by a sluggish nature of the course.

There are several forms of hyperthermia:

  1. a mild form, characterized by malaise and a slight increase in temperature (if comfortable conditions for rest are created for the victim, then all the symptoms of the disease can disappear on their own);
  2. a form of moderate severity, in which the temperature rises strongly at 39-40 ° C, fainting and fever are observed (if recovery measures are taken on time, then the body’s functions will quickly normalize);
  3. severe form with an acute onset and a complex course (psychomotor agitation, convulsions, body temperature 41-42 ° C are observed, in which case an ambulance should be called and urgent measures should be taken to treat the patient).

There are two types of pathological conditionswhite and pink. In the first option, the production of heat corresponds to heat transfer, and therefore, the patient’s condition does not change. In the second type of ailment, heat production significantly exceeds heat transfer, which is due to spasm of peripheral vessels. Such a violation is caused by coldness of the legs and arms, chills, cyanosis of the lips and nail phalanges occurs.

Causes of hyperthermia

Hyperthermia is not an independent disease, it is the most common symptom that develops in various pathological conditions and diseases and is considered a protective and compensatory reaction of the body.

Hyperthermia is the main symptom of various diseases that are caused by the onset of inflammatory processes or disruption of the thermoregulatory center in the brain. An increase in temperature can occur with inflammatory lesions of the respiratory system, acute respiratory viral infections, inflammatory lesions of the ENT organs, acute inflammatory lesions of the abdominal or retroperitoneal organs.

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The development of the hyperthermia reaction is based on the imbalance of heat transfer and heat generation, which develops as a result of the disease.

The following factors are considered to be the main causes of the disease:

  • airway inflammation;
  • acute food poisoning;
  • inflammation of the abdominal cavity;
  • brain injury, cerebral hemorrhage ;
  • high intracranial pressure;
  • tissue necrosis;
  • heart attack;
  • stroke;
  • purulent lesions of soft tissues;
  • metabolic diseases;
  • tumors;
  • problems with the endocrine system;
  • hereditary fever;
  • heatstroke.

Hyperthermia symptoms

The main symptoms of hyperthermia are the following factors:

  • the presence of obvious or latent signs of the disease that provoked heatstroke;
  • general weakness;
  • drowsiness;
  • agitation;
  • increased breathing, tachycardia ;
  • excessive sweating;
  • convulsions;
  • temperature rise over 38 ° С;
  • circulatory disorders;
  • fainting;
  • metabolic disease.


Hyperthermia syndrome is diagnosed, first of all, at the reception of a physician – therapist . The doctor examines the symptoms and, in case of suspicion, can prescribe the following measures:

  • general blood analysis;
  • general urine analysis;
  • ECG;
  • additional research to help identify problems causing heatstroke.

Hyperthermia treatment

Treatment of hyperthermia involves taking the following measures:

  • elimination of the causes that caused hyperthermia;
  • cooling;
  • drug therapy;
  • rubbing the body with a cloth dipped in a solution of water and vinegar;
  • wrap the patient in a wet sheet;
  • dropper;
  • enema with purified water at room temperature.

Treatment of hyperthermia should be carried out in a specialized medical institution, while cooling the patient’s body should be started during the transportation of the person to the hospital.

Treatment of hyperthermia in children should be carried out under the supervision of a pediatrician.

Risk group

Children and elderly people are most susceptible to this disease.


The most dangerous is the severe form of hyperthermia, which can be fatal.


Preventive measures for hyperthermia:

  • elimination of factors that can cause overheating of the body;
  • timely appeal to a pediatrician or therapist with an increase in temperature (especially in children and elderly people).


This article is posted for educational purposes only and does not constitute scientific material or professional medical advice.

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