Understanding Causes and Complications of Diphtheria!


People suffering from high-grade fever, sore throat, and difficulty swallowing must visit the best ENT specialist in Lahore without delay. The symptoms correlate with bacterial infection, which can affect inflammation in heart diseases. An early diagnosis of the disease helps reduce the chances of further complications.

Diphtheria and Symptoms

Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a bacteria that affects the physical health of the person. It leads to the infection of the nose and throat. The person may suffer from respiratory or cutaneous Diphtheria. The symptoms of respiratory diphtheria are:

  • The patient can notice the change in the lymph nodes. The swelling becomes visible, and the individual starts to experience mild pain. The caregivers can notice that there is a gray membrane covering the throat.
  • The person remains lethargic and inactive most of the time. The person suffers from a feeling of weakness.
  • The patient struggles to swallow the food, and it causes pain.
  • The person suffers from wheezing, coughing, sore throat, and fever, causing difficulty functioning.
  • In severe cases, without intervention, it can lead to respiratory illness.

The symptoms of cutaneous diphtheria are:

  • The patient suffers from swelling and redness near the neck.
  • The individual suffers from ulcers surrounded by the grey membrane in the throat.
  • The patient suffers from severe pain and discomfort, which hinders their overall performance.

Causes of Diphtheria

The causes that lead to diphtheria are:

  • The person may come in contact with an infected person and suffer from the symptoms and complications.
  • Individuals under the age of five and above sixty are more likely to come in contact with the bacteria causing infection.
  • The compromised immune system increases the risk of suffering from bacterial infection and related problems.
  • People living in an unhygienic environment may come in contact with Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which can affect other members of the family and lead to further physical health complications.

Preventive Measures

The preventive measures that can help the person avoid coming in contact with Corynebacterium diphtheriae are: 

  • People should prioritize their physical health and get vaccinated against the disease to avoid complications after conferring with a specialist.
  • If people know someone suffering from the condition and has been in close contact, they must consult a doctor and take antibiotics to avoid complications.
  • Someone diagnosed with diphtheria must stay isolated to avoid the spread.


The complications associated with diphtheria are:

  • Without medical intervention, the condition of the patient suffering from diphtheria may worsen. It can severely affect the functioning of vital organs. It causes inflammation of the heart muscles, becoming the cause of death. Therefore, it is necessary to consult the specialist as soon as the person starts to exhibit unusual symptoms to prevent permanent damage to the vital organs.
  • Diphtheria can damage the nerves, leading to paralysis of the limbs and eyes muscles. The damage to the nerves can cause respiratory failure, which can become the reason for death.


The tests that help diagnose an individual with diphtheria include:

  • Elek Test: The Elek test helps detect the existence of exotoxins in the body.
  • Throat Culture Test: The test aims to identify the type of bacteria causing the person to suffer from the symptoms. It helps assess the severity of the condition, which helps opt for the best treatment for smooth recovery.
  • Physical Examination: The specialist will conduct a thorough examination to check the swelling around the neck. Also, if the doctor observes a gray membrane covering the throat it can confirm that the patient is suffering from a bacterial infection.

Effective Treatment Options

The medications that help treat diphtheria are:

  • Use of Antibiotics: The medication helps fight the infection and provides the patient with relief.
  • Use of Antitoxins: Diphtheria produces toxins, which need neutralizing to avoid complications. The medication helps reduce the symptoms of toxins.

Individuals exhibiting the symptoms of diphtheria must immediately seek medical help. People can discuss their symptoms with Dr. Z.M. Raahat. The specialist will conduct tests to diagnose the illness and provide guidance regarding effective treatment options for smooth recovery without further complications.

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